Sailing against the tide: Tsardom and Russian Society c.1900

Russia – described by Churchill as ‘a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma’ by British political Winston Churchill in 1939 – was as juxtaposed, inscrutable and confusing a political and social entity in 1900 as it has been to many observers from the outside world before and after. Russia at the dawn ofContinue reading “Sailing against the tide: Tsardom and Russian Society c.1900”

Enter Bismarck, arise Prussia: The Road to German Unity 1862-66

Despite the failure of the ‘experiment’ of 1848-49 and the repressive and reactionary climate which followed, it can be argued that in the long term the seeds of Liberalism (and as it is Germany of the mid-19th Century, Nationalism by association) had been firmly planted to blossom at a later date. And whilst Prussia –Continue reading “Enter Bismarck, arise Prussia: The Road to German Unity 1862-66”

The German ‘Revolution’ of 1848

The ‘old order’ of post-Vienna Europe – that of absolute rulers and their reactionary plutocrats enforcing their rule on a subjugated population – seemed on the brink in the year of 1848. From Sicily in the south through the heart of Central Europe, voices for constitutional reform and national re-awakenings grew in tandem to generateContinue reading “The German ‘Revolution’ of 1848”

Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: Economic foundations of the Zollverein

History – from ancient times to contemporary – provides considerable evidence in supporting the belief that economic necessity is the major precursor to social or political change. From ancient times where humans migrated to areas which were the most fertile and productive – fertilising culture and identity as well as the soil on which theyContinue reading “Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: Economic foundations of the Zollverein”

Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: How did ideals of ‘reform’ look prior to 1848?

The idea of both political and social reform as well as the concept of a ‘Greater Germany’ was so naive and unrefined in the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic period that – despite both Liberals and Nationalists having the mutually inclusive ambition of a ‘unified’ German political entity – there was no consensus as toContinue reading “Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: How did ideals of ‘reform’ look prior to 1848?”

Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: The road to 1848 – How ‘Germanic Europe’ emerged into the post-Napoleonic world

Prior to the years of Napoleonic conflict and according domination of the Germanic states of Central Europe, the concept of ‘Germany’ as political ideal was vague and distant for all but a very few dreamers and eccentrics. As late as 1789 those who identified as German in a cultural or ethnic sense found themselves dividedContinue reading “Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany 1815-71: The road to 1848 – How ‘Germanic Europe’ emerged into the post-Napoleonic world”

Create your website with WordPress.com
Get started